hukm (legal value)

Every possible human act has one of five legal values:

Obligatory (wajib)
Recommended (mandub)
Permitted (mubah; also halal)
Disapproved (makruh)
Forbidden (mahzur; also haram)

It is the business of fiqh (legal science) to ascertain these values.


This is an outdated site, preserved here for archive purposes only. For current information, courses, and scholarship please visit

The opinions or statements expressed herein should not be taken as a position of or endorsement by the University of Oklahoma.